The College of Hereditary Nobility of Hungary

List of rulers of Transylvania

Affiliation Ruler Years Remarks
Voivods under the Kings of Hungary
Mercurius (Transylvanian Voivod) c. 1110 attested as Mercurius princeps Ultrasylvanus
Leustachius 1176-1199
Legforus 1199-1200
Eth (Transylvanian Voivod)  ?
Gyula I  ?-1201
Benedek 1201-1206
Smaragd 1206
Benedek 1206-1209
Michael I 1209-1211
Bertold of Andechs-Meran, Archbishop 1211-1213
Nicholas I 1213
Gyula I 1213
Simon (Transylvanian Voivod) 1213-1215
Hippolitus 1215-1217
Raphael 1217-1218
Neka 1218-1221
Pal 1221-1231
Gyula II 1230-1233
Denes 1233-1234
Andrew I 1234-1235
Posza 1235-1240
First Mongol invasion 1240-1242
Lorant 1242-1252
Interregnum 1252-1261
Ereny Kos 1261
Arpads Stephen II 1261-1270
Matyas 1270-1272
Nicholas II 1272-1273 1st rule
John I 1273-1274
Nicholas II 1274-1275 2nd rule
Ladislaus I Borsa 1275
Ugrin 1275-1276
Matyas 1276-1277
Nicholas III Pok 1277 1st rule
Aba 1278-1279
Stephen III 1280
Roland Borsa 1281-1282
Apor Pecz 1283
Roland Borsa 1284-1285
Second Mongol invasion 1284-1285. No Voivode is appointed during 1285-1288
Roland Borsa 1288-1294 opposed to the king as seigneur of the province during years of feudal anarchy. Defeated by King Andrew III of Hungary
Ladislaus II Khan 1294-1315 opposed to the king as seigneur of the province during years feudal anarchy.
Voivods under the Kings of Hungary
Nicholas III 1315-1318 2nd rule
D of Debrecen 1318-1321
Thomas I Szecsenyi 1322-1342
Nicholas IV Sirokay 1342-1344
Lackfi Stephen IV 1344-1350
Thomas II Csor 1350
Ilocki Nicholas V Kont 1351-1356
Lackfi Andrew II Lackfi 1356-1359
Lackfi Dionys Lackfi 1360-1367
Lackfi Nicholas VI 1367-1368
Lackfi Emeric Lackfi 1368-1372
Lackfi Stephen V 1373-1376 brother of Emeric
Ladislaus III 1376-1391
Emeric I Bebek 1392-1393
Frank de Szecseny 1392-1393
Stibor of Stiboricz 1395-1401 knight of the Order of the Dragon, Clan of Ostoja
Nicholas VII Csaki & Nicholas VIII Marczali 1401-1403
John II Tamasi & Iacob Lack de Szanto 1403-1409
Stibor of Stiboricz 1410-1414 knight of the Order of the Dragon
Nicholas VII Csaki 1415-1426 2nd rule
Ladislaus IV Csaki 1426-1437 son of Nicolae Csaki
Peter I Cseh 1436-1438
Losonczi Dezso 1441-1440
Ladislaus V Jakcs January 1441
John III Hunyadi (Janos Hunyadi / Iancu de Hunedoara) 1441-1446
Emeric I Bebek & Nicholas IX Uljaki 1446-1447
Emeric II Bebek & John III Hunyadi May-October 1448
John IV Rozgonyi 1449-1460
Ilocki Nicholas IX Ilocki 1449-1458 2nd rule
Rozgonyi Sebestyen 1458-1461
Ilocki Nicholas IX Ilocki 1460 3rd rule
Ladislaus VI 1460
Nicholas IX Ilocki & Pongracz Janos 1462-1465
Szentgyorgyi Zsigmond & John V Szentgyorgyi 1465-1467
John VI Pongracz & Nicholas X Csupor 1468-1472
Magyar Balazs 1472-1475
John VI Pongracz 1475-1476
Peter II Gereb 1478-1479
Bathory (Ecsed) Stephen VI Bathory 1479-1493
Dragfi Bartolomeus Dragfi 1493-1499
Ladislaus VII Losonczi 1493-1495
Peter III Szentgyorgyi 1499-1510
Zapolya John VII Zapolya
(Zapolya Janos)
1511-1526 elected King of Hungary by one party of Hungarian nobles in 1526, while another party elected Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria.
Peter IV Pereny 1526-1534 appointed by John VII Zapolya
Bathory (Somlyo) Stephen VII Bathory 1529-1534 appointed by John I Zapolya
Hieronymus Laski 1531-1534
Stephen VIII Majlath (Stefan Mailat) 1534-1536
Emeric III Balassa 1536-1540
Frater Gyorgy 1542-1551 guardian of John II Sigismund Zapolya
Bathory (Ecsed) Andrew Bonaventura Bathory 1551-1552 lieutenant of Ferdinand of Austria
Stephen IX Dobo & Francise Kendi 1552-1556
vacant 1556-1570 direct rule of John II Sigismund Zapolya as claimant to the throne of Hungary
Princes of Transylvania and parts of Hungary
Zapolya John VIII Sigismund Zapolya (Janos Zsigmond) 1570-1571 Son of John Zapolya, renounced his royal claim in 1570 in favour of Emperor Maximilian and remained Prince of Transylvania and parts of Hungary until his death in 1571.
Bathory (Somlyo) Stephen X Bathory 1571-1586 elected Voivod by a diet, King of Poland since 1575, assumed title of Prince of Transylvania and parts of Hungary
Gaspar Bekes 1571-1572 rival voivod, designated as successor by John II Sigismund Zapolya and supported by the Habsburg King, defeated by Stephen Bathory
Bathory (Somlyo) Christopher Bathory 1575-1581 older brother of Stephen Bathory, administered Transylvania as Voivod during the absence of his brother.
Bathory (Somlyo) Sigismund Bathory 1581/1586-1598 son of Christopher, succeeded his father as Voivod and his uncle as Prince; assumed regency in 1588; abdicated in April 1598 in favor of Habsburg Rudolf, King of Hungary
Habsburg Rudolf April-August 1598
Bathory (Somlyo) Sigismund Bathory August 1598 - March 1599 returned in August 1598, again abdicated in March 1599 favor of his cousin Andrew Cardinal Bathory.
Bathory (Somlyo) Andrew Cardinal Bathory March-November 1599 Cousin of Sigismund, driven out by Michael of Wallachia and killed by his Szekely allies
Draculesti Michael II (Michael the Brave) 1599-1600 was recognized by the Transylvanian parliament (diet) only as imperial governor subject to the Holy Roman Emperor, however, he was de facto ruler of Transylvania. Deposed in September 1600 by Hungarian nobles. Romanian historiography asserts that he was Prince of Transylvania.
Habsburg Rudolf 1600-1601 ruled through the governor Giorgio Basta, 1600-1601
Bathory (Somlyo) Sigismund Bathory 1601 attempted to regain Transylvania, recognized by the diet of Kolozsvar/Klausenburg/Cluj but defeated by Basta and Michael the Brave, eventually abdicated in 1602 in favor of King Rudolf II
Habsburg Rudolf 1601-1606 ruled through the governor Giorgio Basta, 1601-1604
Mozes Szekely April - July 1603 rebelled against Habsburgs and defeated Basta with Tartar mercenaries and claimed the title of Prince but was defeated by Radu Serban, Voivode of Wallachia
Princes of Transylvania between Ottomans and Habsburgs
Bocskay Stephen XI Bocksay 1605-1606 rebelled against Habsburgs with support of Hungarian nobles and the Turks, confirmed in his position in the Treaty of Vienna (1606)
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) Sigismund Rakoczi 1607-1608 elected by the estates against the wishes of Bocskay, Habsburgs and Ottomans; deposed by a military rebellion under Gabriel Bathory
Bathory (Somlyo) Gabriel Bathory 1608-1613 ally of Bocskay, came to power in a military rebellion
Bethlen (Iktar) Gabriel Bethlen 1613-1629 claimed the Kingship of Hungary 1619-1621
Bethlen (Iktar) Stephen XII Bethlen 1629-1630 originally chosen to succeed his brother, opposed his sister-in-law
Hohenzollern Catherine of Brandenburg 1629-1630 daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, widow of Gabriel Bethlen
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) George I Rakoczi 1630-1648
Habsburg Ferdinand III 1630-1645 claimed the Principality but accepted George I in 1645 in the treaty of Linz
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) George II Rakoczi 1648-1657 married Sophia Bathory, niece of Gabriel Bathory, claimed the Kingship of Poland in 1657, abdicated in favor of Habsburg Leopold, King of Hungary, deposed by a diet at Turkish command
Rhedey (Aba) Francis Rhedey 1657-1658 backed by Charles X Gustav of Sweden (1654-1660). Francis Rhedey was a descendent from the Royal House of Aba - King Samuel Aba of Hungary
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) George II Rakoczi 1657-1658 restored by a diet, deposed by the Turks
Barcsay (Nagybarcsa) Akos Barcsay 1658-1659
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) George II Rakoczi 1659-1660 fell in battle against the Turks
Kemeny John IX Kemeny 1661-1662 backed by the Habsburg King Leopold
Apafi (Apanagyfalu) Michael III Apafi 1661-1690 backed by the Turks, opposed King Leopold, made peace with the Habsburg King in 1685/7
Apafi (Apanagyfalu) Michael IV Apafi 1681-1692 elected as heir during his father's lifetime, and accepted as such by the Turks, ruled with George Banffy as governor, moved to Vienna and forced to cede the Principality to King Leopold
Thokoly (Kesmarkium) Imre Thokoly 1690-1699 earlier claimant of Upper Hungary, appointed Prince of Transsylvania by the Turks at the death of Michael I, held the country with Turkish support briefly in 1690/91
In 1692 the Habsburg Kings of Hungary permanently assumed the title of Prince of Transylvania, administering the country through governors.
Habsburg Leopold I 1690-1705 governors:
* George Banffy, 1691-1696
* Rabutin de Bussy 1696-1708
Rakoczi (Felsovadasz) Francis II Rakoczi 1704-1711 grandson of George II Rakoczi, rebelled against King Leopold, claiming the titles Prince of Transylvania and Ruling Prince of Hungary
Habsburg CharlesI 1711-1740 governors:
* Stephen Haller, 1709-1710
* Wesselenyi Istvan, 1710-1713
* Sigismund Kornis, 1713-1731
* Wesseleny Istvan, 1731-1732
* Francisc Anton Wallis, 1732-1734
* John Haller 1734-1755
Habsburg Maria Theresa 1740-1765 governors:
* Francisc Venceslav Wallis, 1755-1758
* Ladislaus Kemeny, 1758-1762
* Adolf Buccow, 1762-1764
*Hadik Andras, 1764-1765
The Principality is elevated to the Grand Principality of Transylvania, with the Habsburg Grand Princes administering the country through governors.
Habsburg Maria Theresa 1765-1780 governors:
* Andreas Hadik 1765-1767
* Carol O'Donell 1767-1770
* Joseph Maria von Auersperg 1771-1774
* Samuel von Brukenthal 1774-1775, 1776-1787
Habsburg-Lorraine Joseph II 1780-1790 governors:
* Samuel von Brukenthal 1774-1775, 1776-1787
* Banffy Gyorgy II, 1787-1822
Habsburg-Lorraine Leopold II 1790-1792 governor: Banffy Gyorgy II, 1787-1822|
Habsburg-Lorraine Francis II 1792-1835 governors:
* George Banffy II, 1787-1822
* Josika Janos 1822-1834
* Ferdinand d'Este 1835-1837
Habsburg-Lorraine Ferdinand I 1835-1848 * John Kornis, 1838-1840
* Teleki Jozsef, 1842-1848
Habsburg-Lorraine Franz Joseph I 1848-1916 governors:
* Ludwig Wohlgemuth, 1849-1851
* Karl B. Schwarzenberg, 1851-1858
* Friedrich von Liechtenstein, 1858-1861
* Miko Imre 1860-1861
* Ludwig Folliot of Crenneville, 1861-1867
In the wake of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian government dissolved the Grand Principality and incorporated its territory into the Kingdom of Hungary. The Habsburg Kings continue to use the title of a Grand Prince of Transsylvania.
Habsburg-Lorraine Karl I 1916-1918